Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)
Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown cause. It can be limited to the skin (cutaneous) or involve multiple organ systems (systemic). It is characterized by developing antibodies such as ANA, dsDNA, and Smith antibodies. Patients may present with various symptoms ranging from mild to severe or life-threatening. Multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, and kidneys, can be involved. Lupus is diagnosed based on characteristic clinical and laboratory findings after alternative diagnoses have been excluded. Treatment and prognosis depend on the severity of the disease and organ involvement and typically involve a combination of lifestyle changes such as protection from the sun and often chronic immunosuppression.
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